These are questions we anticipated as common among practitioners.
How and when INDC turns into NDC?
If a goal or target is submitted prior to the submission of an instrument of ratification, it will be termed as INDC. If such goal or target is submitted together with the instrument of ratification, then it will be termed as NDC and thus becomes the first NDC of the country.
Do the countries need to submit a revised NDC along with their instrument of ratification?
Paragraph 13 decision 1/CP.21 is clear that countries do not need to submit NDC with the instrument of ratification if they have already submitted the INDC. In this case, the INDC will be considered as the NDC. However, countries that have submitted INDC can submit a revised version with the instrument of ratification, if they wish to revise the INDC.
It is not mandatory for countries to revise the INDC and submit as NDC. It the country considers that its INDC is final, then there is no need for submitting a revised NDC together with the instrument of ratification.
Can countries submit a revised NDC even after the submission of their instrument of ratification?
Paragraph 11 of article 4. of Paris Agreement clearly states that countries have the right to replace their NDC at any time. Nevertheless, it recommends that countries should do so with a view (that is, they are encouraged to) to make the NDC more ambitious.
Thus, if countries think that they would like to revise their INDC, they can do so upon submission of the instrument of ratification. However, if countries prefer to submit their instrument of ratification at the earliest, they can also submit a revised NDC at a later date.
What is the time frame for NDC submission?
The Paris Agreement urges parties whose INDC contains a time frame up to 2025 to communicate by 2020 a new NDC, and to do so every five years thereafter, pursuant to article 4. paragraph 9. of the cited agreement.
Should NDC implementation be structured around a number of NAMAs amounting to the envisaged reduction of emissions?
This is a possibility. Nonetheless, NDC implementation can also be conceived outside the NAMA framework.
Do planning and policy efforts qualify as NDC implementation with respect to adaptation-related goals?
Both infrastructure and policy focused efforts should in principle qualify as NDC implementation. To the extent possible, all adaptation efforts and especially policy focused efforts should include monitoring and evaluation provisions in order to assess the extent to which they are efficient and effective.
Are there any good practice guidelines about the institutional and legal frameworks suitable for NDC implementation?
There are guidelines focused on the NDC development process, for example from UDP, CDKN, and UNDP/WRI. We are preparing two additional documents that will explicitly focus on NDC implementation. These will be ready in April 2017.
Should a country update its NDC if unexpected developments affect the level of ambition of one or more components of NDC?
It is strongly recommended that the country formally communicates the updates, especially if they amount to net changes in the overall ambition level. If the updates take place close to the second reporting period (2020), they can be included in the updated NDC, which countries are required to submit by then.
Is the updated NDC in 2020 expected to reflect ongoing efforts to mitigation actions?
There is no guidance on this issue yet. In the interest of clarity, the updated NDC could take stock of those efforts – while clearly indicating which additional provisions are included and how they increase the overall ambition levels for the country.
Are there plans to establish an NDC implementation facility in order to increase financial and technical capacities of developing countries?
A number of bilateral aid-funded initiatives are under preparation, with the goal of providing this kind of support. For example, UN Environment, through the UNEP-DTU Partnership, will be supporting NDC implementation in about ten countries. The German Corporation for International Cooperation (GIZ) and the Climate Development and Knowledge Network (CDKN), among others, are likely to run similar efforts.
What role will the Green Climate Fund play with regard to NDC implementation?
As per the outcomes of COP21, the Green Climate Fund (GCF) shall serve the Paris Agreement. This effectively rules out the creation of a new financial instrument to support NDC implementation. To the extent that a component of an NDC meets the eligibility requirements for financing by the GCF – notably with regard to the financial plan attached to the action – the GCF can provide finance for that action.
What are the main steps in financing the implementation of actions that support the achievement of NDC objectives for countries?
The following generic steps can be considered:
- By topic, quantify existing finance volumes that could support the implementation of various provisions in the NDC;
- Take stock of existing national (public) investments and recurrent spending that are relevant to the provisions in the NDC;
- For different scenarios, each describing a realistic range of financing instruments and models, analyse the implications of the provisions in the NDC – that is, impacts, costs, feasibility, needs, and so on;
- Assess the investment capacity of private investors, and determine whether incentives can be introduced to mobilize private sector financing;
- Explore options concerning international funding, especially with regard to any conditional components in the NDC;
- Identify current and potential financial sources, including domestic public budgets, private sector financing, and bilateral and multilateral aid;
- Articulate financing plans in the national budget (for direct costs and revenues);
- Incorporate future costs in the budget development process.
Are there any good practice experiences available concerning mobilization of private or international financing for adaptation?
The ADMIRE project provides a few examples of successful private sector engagement in adaptation activities. The Global Innovation Lab for Climate Finance showcases a number of successful financial arrangements involving the financial sector. With respect to international financing, bilateral and multilateral donors have well-defined priorities regarding the aid funds they allocate to adaptation. Arguably, government-to-government consultations are the best channel to assess possibilities.